The history of Greek medicine under the name of Hippocrates (Hippocrates) begins with the people of Kos, which dates back to 257 AH. م.
(And according to a narration of 370 BC) he died and his book of short words or chapters [Aphorismoi] has always been a guidebook for those who had a medical profession. This collection is one of the first medical works to be translated into Arabic by Hanin ibn Ishaq, who knew Greek. Another Syriac translation of this book is available, the name of the translator and the date of translation are unknown, and in 1903. Published in Leipzig by Punion.
In the later period of the Alexandrian school, the medical writings of Galen (d. 200 CE) were very authoritative, and a selection of his treatises were taught as textbooks. The program was also used in Homs and Jundishapur, and its Syriac translation was used by Syriac language students. Many of those Syriac translations were made by Sir Gius Ras al-Aini, and were later revised by Hanin ibn Ishaq and his companions in Dar al-Hikma in Baghdad, or replaced by new translations from the academy. These Syriac translations preceded the Arabic translations, and after the Arabic translation was found, both Syriac and Arabic translations were used in parallel for some time. Galen himself practiced medicine in Rome, but studied in Izmir, Corinth, and Alexandria.
Other important authors in Greek medicine are:
Oribasius (born about 325 AD) was a friend of Emperor Julianus, and the emperor considered him a confidant of his secrets in expressing his dissatisfaction with Christianity and his efforts to revive old idolatry. The letter that the emperor wrote to him about this (Julian, Xvii, Epist) probably dates back to 358 AD. He was with the emperor in the invasion of the land of Gol, and he was also present in the bad expedition to Iran, and he was with him when he died in that land in 363. After returning from Iran, his property was confiscated by Valentinianos and Valens, and the reason for this confiscation is not well known. He was then exiled to the “land of the savages”, but this exile did not last long, and ended in 369. Of his medical writings there are three surviving books, one of which is a “summary” [Synopsis] consisting of eight books which he donated to his son Eustathius.
This book was translated into Arabic by Hanin ibn Ishaq, and Ali Abbas [- Ali ibn Abbas Majusi] was aware of it. Paul of Aegina [quoted by Paul. Aetius] (late fifth century) was a physician who practiced medicine in Constantinople. We do not know anything about his life, not even the time of his activity; It is clear only from the fact that in his works he mentions Cyril of Alexandria, who died in 444 AD, and Petrus Archuater, a Theodoric physician of the Eastern Goths, who lived in the late fifth century. He was a Syrian and came from the people.
He wrote a medical collection in sixteen books, which are now divided into four categories. There are not many innovative things in his writings, but he has chosen their contents well. He is the first Greek physician to pay much attention to magic and amulets.
The Aegina Bridge probably lived in the late seventh century. We do not know anything about his life. Suidas considers him the author of several medical books. Only one of these books survives, entitled “Seven Medical Books.”
This book was translated by Hanin ibn Ishaq and was very popular among the Arabs; Especially in terms of ability, they referred to it more and for this reason, they called it “Al-Qawabel”.
Aaron, the Alexandrian priest and physician, is another person whose life is unknown. He is the author of a collection said to have been translated into Syriac by a man named Gosius. This Gauss is equated with Gusius Petaeus, who lived in the time of the emperor Zeno (474-491).
The later Syriac writer Ibn al-‘Abri [Bar Hebraeus] wrote that Aaron had written thirty books which were translated by Sergius Ra’saini and added two books of his own, but Steinschneider believed that these appendices were written by an Arabic translator. Is that he was an Iranian Jew and his name was Mesirgoyah. Aaron’s books were widely used among the Arabs, and were strongly influenced by Arabic medicine.
Among the Iranians, there were a few who wrote their books in Greek in order to be both scientifically proud and to transfer science to a non-Islamic world. Perhaps the author of this book was one of these people; As his name suggests in the introduction to the book, he was apparently an Iranian Muslim who wrote a book on medicine in Greek, and after him it was translated into Persian by Zakaria Razi, although there is some doubt. “Six hundred years ago, the library of the Paris Medical University was the smallest library in the world. The library had only one book, and it was written by an Islamic scholar.
This book was so precious to them that even Ludwig XI, who was a Christian and Christian king who wanted to borrow it, had to deposit a hundred gold coins and twelve silver coins. He rented the book so that his private physicians could transcribe it and use it as a culture of disease and medical prescription, both in cases of illness and in times of health.
This book, though all the inventory of the library, did in fact contain all the medical sciences, from ancient Greece to 925 AD, and since four hundred years later there was almost no scientific activity in Frankish Europe. The value of this important, majestic and progressive book, written by one of the sons of Islamic civilization, was a thousand times greater than the sum of the priceless and religious superstitions of all the libraries of the temples of Europe.
The people of Paris attached great importance to this medical treasure, because they had erected a statue of the author of the book as a souvenir in the great teaching hall of the Medical School. At present, whenever students of the Mdecin Ecole de High School on Boulevard Saint-Germain-Dopers gather in the Great Teaching Hall, they see this statue and the statue of another Islamic scholar. His name is known in Europe as “Razes”. The Arabs call him “Al-Razi” and his real name is Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Zakaria.
Razi had such deep knowledge that we do not know a doctor like him since the time of Galen.
He tirelessly expanded his knowledge, not only at the patient’s bedside, but also when his patients were asleep, reading books at night and engaging in chemical experiments and long scientific journeys. He continued. He was in contact with top scientists at the same time and met some of them. He raised the moral value of the medical profession among his students and fought against the charlatans of unscientific games, books and healings.
From a young man who became acquainted with music and money changers, he became a philanthropist who was respected by the rulers and loved by the nation and a refuge for the poor. In addition, he treated the poor, helping them with his own money, while living a life of luxury and even poverty.
Secret in 925 AD. Poverty finally died; His infinite generosity led him to sheer poverty.
His colleagues, whose hearts were full of jealousy, and who had enough religious and political excuses against that free-thinking philosopher, took revenge on him and were able to take him easily, both in Baghdad and later in the city of Ray, of all. Take jobs away.
His sister Khadijeh took his poor and needy brother to his house. Despite the middle
of his life he lived in prosperity. Towards the end of his life he looked deplorable. The secret that had cured the pain of thousands of patients became blind, the angry and ruthless ruler of Khorasan, Al-Mansour Ibn Ishaq, had flogged the scientist so hard that it later led to his blindness. The pretext for this was that a secret chemical experiment he conducted in the presence of al-Mansour was apparently unsuccessful.
To test, Razi asked the doctor who wanted to operate on his eye, “How many scales does the eye have?” The doctor was embarrassed and stuttered. “Anyone who does not know this should not use his surgical instruments in my eyes,” Razi said.
The first group of its leaders and the pioneers of medical wisdom and high philosophy,
Abu Mashhar Balkhi, an astronomer, says in “Kitab al-Aluf”:
There were three people:
1- Hermes I, first
Hermes 1, he He lived, and “Hermes” is 2 titles such as: (Caesar) and (Kasra) and the Persians in his chronicles have called him: “Ibn Jahz” 3, 4 Haranians say: Wisdom has come to us from Hermes.
Also, the Persians say: Hermes’s grandfather: “Guymert” 5 is the name of Adam Abu Al-Bashar, the Hebrews call Hermes: “Enoch”, and in Arabic they call him Idris.
Abu Musharraf says: Hermes was the first to speak about the Alawite beings and the movements of the stars, and Homo says: His grandfather Jumert taught Bao the hours of the day and night, and he was the first to establish temples, and God in He was praised there, and he was the first to discuss medicine, and to speak in it.
And he says: Hermes writes rhythmic poems and poems about terrestrial beings and celestial bodies for the people of his time, and he was the first to inform the people about the occurrence of the hurricane, because he saw such a calamity in the celestial signs and astronomical works. Heaven from: water or fire will engulf the earth.
Hermes had chosen the city of “Sa’id” in Egypt for his residence, and there he built the pyramids and the city of Al-Turab, and fearing that the storm of knowledge would perish, he built “Barabi”, and this is a mountain in (Akhim). Which he called “Barba”, he carved it from stone, and engraved all the arts in it with the images of artists, images and tools of craftsmen, and with special signs and symbols he wrote the limits and descriptions of sciences, so that sciences and Leave the arts for the future, and make them immortal, for it was feared that the works of science and technology would be completely destroyed in the event of the storm,
and in the news of the ancients it is stated that: Idris was the first to study in books, and in the sciences کرد. And God sent down to him thirty books from the sky, and he was the first to teach people how to sew, and how to dress, and God raised him to a high place, and made the highest paradise his tomb.
Abu Mashhar Balkhi has narrated legendary stories about him, and we mentioned what he found closer to buy from those stories. I ask God to make me successful. 2
(1) – Hermes: The Greek name was one of the goddesses of Greece, the Romans called him “Mercurius”, and in Arabic they called him “Mercury”, the ancient Egyptians said, Hermes “Ravan” the goddess “Thutut” – Thot – He has been, and he has brought all the knowledge, Islamic writers have written this name in various ways: “Idris”, “Enoch”, “Enoch”, “Arms”, “Hermes of Hormus”, “Hermes of the triangle with blessings”, the history of life Look at him in: Kitab al-Fihrast – Ibn al-Nadim, p. Al-Qofti in Al-Akhbar has once again mentioned the translation of his life while translating “Hermes the Third” pp. 350-747, and in Al-Ayyun J-1- pp. 16-17, and in Mukhtasar Al-Dawl p. The Greek is nicknamed “Theis Magistestis”, meaning: a philosopher whose philosophical teachings are based on three principles, because they considered three of the attributes of transcendence to be inherent, which are: Existence, Wisdom ، حياة.
Also, to read the word: “Idris”, look at the following books
: 278, The Discovery of Suspicions c.
(2) – Ustad Nino in his book, “Science of the Sky” p. The same Enoch is mentioned in the Torah, and some consider him to be the prophet Idris, and a group of Islamists consider three to be Hermes, and the third Hermes to be the author of many books on astronomy, alchemy, magic, and the like. .
(3) – In Ayoun: “Allahjad” and its meaning is the judge, and in Al-Akhbar: “Ijjal” is recorded, and in the selected Swan al-Hikmah: “Ibn Jahz” and its meaning is the judge, and this word Lippert also mentions the contents of the book Al-Aluf Abi Moasher, which he collected from various sources and translated in WZKM magazine, vol. 9, pp. 358-351. And in the textbooks of the mentioned book, another form of this word is mentioned: “Imagel”, and also another form of this word: “Allahjad” Lahgad is mentioned, which is written with a question mark (?).
Apparently, the sources who have mentioned this word in their texts have not obtained the correct recording of it. They have mentioned it in the same distorted and erroneous form
. The manuscripts are exactly the same as the printed versions.
In my opinion, Ibn Jaljal and the chosen owner of Sawan al-Hikmah, who wrote the form of this word: “Ibn Jahz”, did not make a mistake in recording it, because the origin of this word in Persian is “Ibn Hudh”, which in Arabic is a gap letter to Jim. Has been changed and this name is one of the ancient kings of Persia. The dynasty of these kings is mentioned in the history of Tabari (vol. 1- pp. 175-174). And in the book of the promoters of gold, Masoudi – vol. 1, p.
And these ancient princes were called Pishdadians, and the first king to be called Pishdad was Houshang, the grandson of Giumert (Giumert).
Tabari says: (J-1- p. 171), Vira Pishdad said and ask the meaning of Pishdad: – (The first prince is a judge)
and says in the book Al-Bada ‘and Al-Tarikh: (3- 138-139): Then King Houshang-
Pishdad, and the first meaning of ruling among the people, and the first is the prayer of the people to the worship of God,… – and some of them think that this is like the Idris of the Prophet and he is Idris “, and this holy statement is consistent with the statements of Abu Mashhar Balkhi Ibn al-Muskawiyyah in his book Tajarib al-Ummm (1: 7), and Abu al-Fada ‘(1:40) say:
Houshang was predicted, which means: the first judge. It seems that those who have quoted the word “Ibn Jahz” from historians have confused the form of the word itself and the meaning of its origin.
And: A. Christensen in his book: I .P .I 63 says: The word Pishdad was translated in the Pahlavi era (*) to mean the first king of justice, what is the main meaning of the word Pishdad first created.
And he also says: The word: Abnghaz has been narrated in different constructions such as: Anghaz, Abnghaz, Annghaz, Asgmad J-2, pp. 79-78
(4) – Al-Haraniyah: In the selection of Swan Al-Hikma, he has written this word: “Al-Harnania”, and this people is also called “Sabeeh”, their residence was the city (Haran), and this is a very old city in the land of the “island” Near the sources of the river: “Al-Balkh” between “Raha” and “Ras Ain” and this people have been famous for worshiping the seven stars of the planet, which was a remnant of the Babylonian and Assyrian religions, (see: Al-Fihrast- 318-327, Al-Tanbih wa al-Ashraf, p. 183, and:
D. Chwolsohn, Die Ssabier Und Der Ssabismus, I 658
(5) This word is composed of two components: “Gio” meaning: living and “Mert” meaning: human (a man who dies), and Gumart is the name of the first human being (Adam) among the Persian people, and he is called “Golshah”. It is also called Boxer Gaffe, meaning the king of the earth
(History of the Sunni kings of the earth – vol. 1- pp. 8- 12- 24-64 , and the book Gharr Akhbar of the kings of Persia vol. 1- p. 4. And many Arabic historical sources, etc. et du premier Roi dans L’Histoire Legendaire des Iraniens, I, Stockholm, I 9 I 7: Les Kayanides, I 239 Passim In this
regard, he spoke in detail. The influence of Pahlavi literature and language means: it is the Sassanid era.
He was of the people of Babylon, and dwelt in the city of the Chaldeans, which is called “Babylon,” and after the flood he lived in the reign of Nabrizbani, and this king was the first. Who founded the city of Babylon after Nimroz ibn Kush 5 – Hermes II had an honorable position in medicine and philosophy, and knew the natures and properties of numbers, he was a student of Pythagoras the heir,
Abu Moasher says: Hermes II of medicine And revived the philosophy and science of the properties of the numbers 6, which were lost in the Flood of Babylon.
And the city of the Chaldeans, whose name is mentioned here, is the city of knowledge of the philosophers of the Orient, and the philosophers of the Orient are the first scholars to determine the limits of science and to establish laws and systems, (and the meaning of Oriental philosophers is philosophers And the wise are the land of Persia). 2
(1) – Hermes II: and he is also called “Babylonian Hermes”. He has brought his writings in industry (alchemy). And as it can be seen, Ibn Jaljal did not introduce him here as a people (of industry) and alchemists, and that Hermes, who was one of the companions of industry and alchemist, is “the third Hermes” – whose translation will come.
Also, the translation of the life of the second Hermes in the books: Al-Akhbar 346-347, Al-Ayoun vol. 1, p. 17, Mukhtasar Al-Dawl, pp. 11-12 C- 5- Volume 2- 2- Page 279- Encyclopedia of the article “Hermes”.
(2) – Babylon: is the ancient city of Babylon, which is located on the banks of the Euphrates River (Article:
Herzfeld in the Encyclopedia of Islam, Article “Babylon”).
(3) – Chaldeans: They were a people who lived in the land (valley) between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, and the Assyrians were located in the upper part of this land. The Chaldeans were an ancient ethnic group with civilization and culture, and were skilled in astronomy and astronomy. The Chaldean civilization and culture influenced the branches and tribes adjacent to their land. Cuneiform has been one of the initiatives of this people. Islamic historians have a lot to say about this people.
(4) – Nabrizbani: This name is written in Al-Oyun: “Nizirbali”. They lived in the eleventh and ninth BC.
(5) – Nimrud ibn Kush: Some historians believe that “Nimrud ibn Kush” was the first king of Nimrud after the flood, and attribute the construction of the Tower of Babel to Bao.
(Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari has quoted some of his news – c – 1- p. 149, Tabaqat al-Umm – p. 17, Mukhtasar al-Dawl, p.
(6) – The science of nature and the properties of numbers: In Greek, “arithmetic” and its meaning is “arithmetic” (other than arithmetic).
In this science, the natural properties of numbers and the ratio of even and odd numbers, etc. are discussed. (Muftah al-Saadah, vol. 1, p. 310), and also look at the fourteenth chapter of Ibn Khaldun’s introduction, p. Healing – from Abu Ali Ibn Sina – refer).
3- Hermes III 1
Hermes III settled in Egypt, lived after the storm, his book “Poisonous Animals”, was a philosopher and physician, and knew the natural properties of deadly drugs, and biting animals, traveled a lot, to the weather He was familiar with the nature of the people of the cities. He had good, valuable and useful words in the field of alchemy
. Artificial gemstones) and the like.
Hermes had a student named “Sclabius” about whom myths and legends are told a lot, and while translating his condition, everything related to the stories seems to smell right and in books. It is narrated that we will bring it, God willing. 2
(1) – Hermes III: and he is also called: “Hermes the third with wisdom”, for his translation, see: “Index pp. 352-353 (he mistakenly called him the second Hermes), Al-Tabqat pp. 18, 19 40 (He also confused him with Hermes II), Al-Akhbar, pp. 350-347, Al-Ayoun, vol. 1, pp. 1-17, Mukhtasar al-Dawl, pp. 11-12 280, Encyclopedia of Article “Hermes”
4- Sculbius 1
He was a disciple of Hermes the Egyptian, and lived in the land of Shamat 2, Galen writes in his book that promotes medicine:
“God reveals to Sclabius He sent: “O Sculbius, if I call you an angel, it is closer to the truth than to call you a human being.”
And Hippocrates says in his book “The Oath, and the Covenant”: The name of Sclabius is derived from the Greek word meaning “glorious and enlightened”, and medical science belongs to Sclabius, and no one can Learn medicine, and call himself a physician, unless his temperament and behavior have been in: purity, piety, chastity like Sculbius, and he should not teach medicine to ignorant people, thinkers and bodybuilders, doctors and scholars with this knowledge should be people. To be honorable and God-knowing, one who is a physician and a scientist with this knowledge should be pious, have mercy on the heart, and always want to benefit people with this knowledge.
And Hippocrates says in this book (the book of oaths and covenants): “Sculbius ascended in a pillar of the sky”.
And Galen, in his book which he wrote for the three philosophers, quotes (Hippocrates) as saying: “I wish I could be like Sculbius?”
And Galen writes in the introduction to his book, The Trick of the Absolute: Medical science must be as authentic to the masses as they see divine medicine in the Temple of Sculpius. And this temple (temple) of Sclabius – according to what Heroshish Sahib al-Qasas 4 narrated – was a house in the city of Rome (in the city of Rome) and in that house was a face that
spoke and asked him things And this image was invented in the early days of Sclabius.
And the magicians of the “city of Rome” believe that the statue erected in the Temple of Sculbius is based on astronomical movements, and the clergy is one of the seven planets of the planet because: The people of the city of Rome (Rome) before entering the Christianity of the stars They worshiped.
These matters have been narrated by Hervish Sahib al-Qasas. Amazing stories and news have been told in the life history of Sculbius, and the closer he got to those news and stories, the more he brought here, and we refrained from mentioning the rest.
And Plato in his book known as: 5 “Kitab al-Nawamis” – Kitab al-Shari’a – says: One day, Sculbius was worshiping the Lord in his temple (temple) when a man and his wife came to him to judge him about the fetus in his womb. , Sculbius said to the woman: O tyrant, your husband was in the temple (the temple of the sun – the celebration of the sun) – and prayed for you for life and health, and the slave who belongs to a certain family is with you In the next three days, you will give birth to a creature that is confused (disfigured), and the woman will give birth to a child who had two hands on her chest. The face of law and sharia is closed because he has reaped more than what he killed.
Plato also narrates from Sculbius in this book – Al-Nawamis – that: One day a man hid money from him in his house, then he came to Sclabius and said to him: O enlightened man among the money, I am lost. Find it’s. , And soon this wealth will be taken out of your hands, that you have taken this blessing by blasphemy and it will never come to you again, and it happened as Sculbius had said.
Plato, too, in the same book, the Book of Al-Namis, tells a wonderful story about the group and delegation that King Marinus 6 sent to Sclabius. Sculbius said to the messengers of King Marinos: “When you return to Marinos, he will die, and when the messengers return to Marinos, they find him dead.”
And (Hippocrates) in his book: “Oath” says: And the staff (Sclabius was made of mallow wood, and on the handle of his staff is a picture of a snake).
Galen says: Sclabius made his staff from the wood of the mallow tree because the mallow tree is temperate in heat and cold, and Sculbius always favored moderation in all his works and in all the furniture of his house. And for this reason he had taken his cane from the temperate tree of Khatami.
As for the image of a snake engraved on the handle of Sclabius’s staff, it is because the snake has a long life among other animals, and Sclabius has made the serpent a sign of longevity and the symbol of knowledge that will never rot or be destroyed.
This was the story of Sculbius and related news in the life history of that great physician whom the wise men like and it is written in the books, and strange and irrational news and anecdotes have been narrated about Scorpius in the books of the Christians, which are not worthy of mention in this book.
Now, if the truth is as Hippocrates, Galen, and Plato said about Sclabius, and we have stated it before, then it must be said that the beginning of the teaching of medicine and philosophy was by the command of God and by revelation and inspiration, or in any other way that God willed. have been. As previously stated in the above news. 2
(1) – Sclabius: His name is written in Islamic books as: Sclabius Isclabius, Sculbius, and Sculbius, and sometimes mistakenly: Sclenius, and he is also called:
King, Prophet, Wise, and Divine Wise, Translation of his life in the books: Al-
(2) – Shamat: And in the book of Al-Nuzha he says: Sclabius had a residence in the city of Sham, and in the translation of Hippocrates it will be said that he had a residence in the city of “Swan”, and this city is called “Homs” and from It is the land of Shamat, and in the translation of Socrates’s biography, he says: “He was a Roman and a Greek and one of the people of Shamat”, Yaqut says in the book Ma’jam al-Baldan: This land is called (Shamat) because of that. Its villages and villages are very close to each other. (In Arabic, a mole is called shama and its plural is shamat).
In ancient times, Balad Sham was within the borders of the Greek state, and in the beginning of Islam, Sham was called (Balad Rome), and in the news, pp. 135-136, while translating the situation (Jibril bin Bakhtishou), he writes: Rome was east of the Euphrates east of the village of NIKephorion from Tusuj Anbar, and on the Tigris River bordering Rome, the cities of Dara and Ras al-Ain.
Also, the middle border of Persia and Rome was in the north of Armenia and from the west of the land of Egypt, and in the book of Al-Oyun, while translating the situation of Galen (vol. 1-7, p. 77), this delimitation of borders is mentioned.
(3) – He is one of the philosophers who was a contemporary of Galen, and he had a special interest in Galen’s medical writings, and on this occasion Galen wrote one of his books called: Has been written, and as he says in Al-Oyun (vol. 1- p. 91- p. 106): The word “aghloqan” in Greek means blue, but it is true that this word in Greek means green (and The word “green” in European languages is derived from the same Greek word).
(4) – As Heroshish, the author of the stories, says: This story does not appear in the Latin origin of the book “Herosius”, except that PaulY Wissowa -I 676 -I says:
“In 293 BC in the city of Rome, (Rome) on the island of Tiberius, a temple was built for Sculbius, and this temple was a branch of the main temple that was located in the city (Abidagh) in Greece”
(5) – Book of Al-Namis: It is also called the Book of Laws, translated by Hanin ibn Ishaq into Arabic. It is said that this book was the last written by Plato. Encyclopedia of Islam – Plato’s article.
(6) – Marinus: Or Marinon was the king of Greece, the story of the prediction and divination of Sclabius about the death of this king in the eyes of C-1- pp. He says: I have found this story in Plato’s book Al-Nawamis, but he has not mentioned the name of Sclabius explicitly. And Mas’udi says in the book Maruj al-Dhahab 1: 182 in the words of the kings of Babylon: “And Marinus reigned for about thirty years”, maybe the king whose name is mentioned in this story was him?
(7) – Khatami: Sunflower, its medical properties and nature are mentioned in Ibn Sina’s law, p. 268, and Ibn al-Baytar’s words, vol.
(8) – The staff of Sclabius: In Ayoun al-Anba ‘, vol. 1, p. It is used.
5- ابولن 1
He is also called “Abla”. He was the first scientist to speak in medicine in Rome and Greece. It was an analogy (3), and it worked according to it.
Abulنn lived in the days of the “glorious ruler” after the time of Moses (pbuh). 2
(1) – Abuln: and also: Abln, and Abul is said, see Oyun p. “Ablaq” has come and he is also called “Ileh”. And in Al-Akhbar, p. 72; It is called “Ibn al-Rumi”.
(2) – In the book of Ayoun al-Anba ‘, he has said this instead of this phrase.
“He was the first to speak in medical science in Persia and Rome.”
(3) – That is: he was a follower of analogy, because medicine at the beginning of the work from the time of Sculbius was based on experience, then a group of physicians came and worked on analogy, until Plato became a physician, and He based the science of medicine on the experience and analogy of both, Ayoun-J-1 pp. 31-33
The second group of Roman and Greek professors who were prominent in medical science and philosophy were the first:
Hippocrates 1 was a follower of the medical school of Sclabius due to his status of human virtue, and he had 2 dwellings in the city of “Swan”, and this city is called “Homs”, and is from the city of Sham 3.
He commented on the science of medicine, and has written treatises and books in this science, and among his medical works are: , “The Book of Algebra and Disposal” 8, “The Book of Human Nature” 9, “The Book of Mixing”, 10 “The Book of Al-Qaruh and the Injuries of the Head” 11, He was virtuous, he treated the sick for free, he was very touring, and because he had the song of tourism, and he was saying goodbye to his city, he appointed his disciple (Fulonis) 14 in his place to treat the sick. slow.
Hippocrates lived in the time of the Persian emperor Ardashir Bahman 15 Dara’s grandfather lived with Dara son, Galen in his treatise which he called: “The doctor must be a philosopher” 16 says: Ardashir Bahman fell ill and read Hippocrates to His bed went and healed him, and Hippocrates refrained from going to his bed,
because Ardashir was the enemy of the Greeks, and when the kings of Greece called Vieira about him, he immediately rushed to him, because He considered him a benefactor and refused to stay with them because their illness had improved and they did not need
Galen says in the treatise “The physician must be a philosopher”: “A student who seeks the knowledge of Hippocrates, and wants to learn medical knowledge, must act in the manner of Hippocrates, and must, like him: be pious, virtuous, evils and iniquities.” Says goodbye.
I saw a story of Hippocrates which is a sign of piety and chastity and a manifestation of his virtue and pure character. And here is the story:
“Philemon” 21 The author of the book: “Al-Farasah” writes in this book: The temperament can be obtained from the structure and composition of everyone’s teeth. Do you have? They all said, “No, we do not know anyone superior to him.” And they said: O wise sage, look at the face of this man, and recite his morals from the composition of his face.
This is a picture of a man who loves the “act of adultery”, they said to him that you are lying enough, this image of Hippocrates is wise. Ask him, then the disciples went to Hippocrates, and they told him all that they had done, and what’s said to them. I can.
This story is a sign of the virtues of that sage, who had devoted himself to goodness and virtue.
And Hippocrates says in his book: “Peymannameh-Soghandnameh” 23: To be knowledgeable, original, and alert in the four medical techniques 24 2
(1) – Hippocrates in Greek and also written “Hippocrates”. He is also called “Hippocrates the Great, Hippocrates the Wise, and Hippocrates the Divine.” He died in 357 BC.
Translation of his condition in: Al-Nuzha, page 127, index, p. 287, classes, p. 27, p. 28, news, p. 90, p. 95, eyes, vol. 83, Al-Shahristani (in the footnote of Ibn Hazm) 3:24, Encyclopedia of Islam, article “Hippocrates”.
(2) – In Al-Akhbar, p
. “Swan” and Bionani “Kos” and it is the name of the island near the Anatolian coast of Asia Minor,
(3) – The same is true in Al-Nuzha: .
(4) – Book of Chapters: It is seven articles, including brief medical definitions and summaries of the contents of his other books, such as the main issues of “The Book of the Precedence of Knowledge”, and “The Book of Divinity and Countries”, and “The Book of Atheistic Diseases”, And a few texts from the “Book of the Epidemic”, and a few chapters from the book “Oja’a al-Nisa ‘” and other issues from his other books. (Ayoun – vol. 1, p. 31) Ya’qubi speaks in detail about this book and says: This book consists of fifty-seven chapters and: it is also called teachings, vol. 1, p. 107, p. 105
. 5) – Introduction to Knowledge: This book is in three articles in expressing and describing the signs, symptoms and effects by which the physician diagnoses diseases in three tests: past, present, future. 1- P. 31), Yaghoubi talks about the chapters of this book in detail and says: This book has three chapters and twenty “teachings”.
(6) – Epidemia: in Al-Oyun: Abidimia – vol. 1- 1- p. And the seventh of this book is not from Hippocrates himself, they were made and attributed to Bao,
(7) – The book of the diseases of atheism: How to treat it with takmid (*) (takmid: to warm the old one and put it on a sore limb.) And the purification and combination of laxatives and the like Al-Ayyun, vol. 1, p. 31
(8) – In Al-Ayyun, vol. 1, p. 1, p. “The medical profession needs it,” he said in these three articles.
(9) – The book of human nature: It is two articles, including the nature of bodies and their compounds.
(اليون-ج- 1- ص 31)
(10) – کتاب الخلات: This book is in three articles and in the quantity and quality of the mixtures and the conditions that affect them, and how to treat them gradually (العيون-ج-1 – p. 32)
(11) – In Al-Oyun: he has mentioned the “book of head injuries” without further explanation, (vol. 1- p. 32), and in the same book, in the translation of Galen’s life, page 99, he says: Is the book: “Interpretation of the book of the wounds of the head of Hippocrates”
(12) – in Al-Oyun says: (Vol. 1- p. 32) Urban climate and the emergence of indigenous diseases in cities. The second article on the knowledge of drinking water, and the seasons and the emergence of native diseases.
The third article identifies the things that keeping them in cities causes indigenous diseases.
He also says in Al-Ayyun, p.
Ya’qubi has spoken in detail about the subjects of this book. C-1- pp.
119-129. Pp. 35-31 and also the books of Hippocrates that Galen has described – p. 99, and also the names of their translators in Arabic, in Al-Akhbar, p. 99, and Al-Fihrast,
p. “Foleys” was one of the greatest disciples of his family
who , and in Al-Akhbar, p. : “Foleys was one of his best students”
(15) – In Al-Oyun, he says: “Hippocrates lived in the time of Bahman, the son of Ardashir”, and in Al-Akhbar: “Ardashir, the grandfather, has a son, Dara” It is the same in Al-Tanbiyyah and Al-Ashraf, and in Al-Nuzha: “Bahman, son of Esfandiar, son of Goshtasb”.
(16) – This phrase in Al-Oyun is as follows: Ibn Asiba’ah did not mention this book in the list of works of Hippocrates and in the writings of Galen (p. 99) he mentioned it as: And in the Teubner collection (12: 8) of 1891 entitled:
“Our best physicians are also philosophers”
“The best physicians are those who have also been philosophers”
(17) – Ibn Jaljal and following him Qofti and Ibn Asiba’ah have narrated this story from the treatise of Galen as “the physician must be a philosopher”, and in Al-Tanbiyyah and Al-Ashraf this story has been narrated from the book of Galen as: The book of the oath of Hippocrates narrates and adds that the Persian prince did not want Hippocrates for his treatment, but because “Da Al-Mutan” had spread in the land of Persia, Hippocrates refused to go to Persia for fear of contracting this disease.
(18) – This is also the case in Al-Akhbar, p. 91, and in Al-Ayyun – C – 1- p. “Qantar is equivalent to one hundred and twenty ounces for the Greeks and ninety shekels per ounce.”
And in Al-Nuzha: “Eight carats [maybe eighty qantars?] Gold. And one hundred and twenty shekels and a shekel is ninety shekels. And all that the emperor had said was one thousand one thousand and eighty shekels ” ( 19
) – and in Al-Akhbar:
The narration has been narrated from Ibn Jaljal, and it is mentioned in Al-Akhbar, p. “I say: this story is sometimes attributed to the philosopher Socrates and his disciples.”
And what is known is that this story is about Socrates, and in the translation of Socrates’s condition will confirm this promise (p. 30), perhaps this mistake is due to the similarity of the word Hippocrates to Socrates, there is another mistake in this story and that The name of Aflimon is included in this story. Because contemporary Philemon was neither one of Hippocrates nor Socrates, this event is between Socrates and a Greek philosopher named Jupiter, who was famous for his knowledge of Frost, this philosopher is not known to the Islamists, and because Elyphimus and his book are in the science of Frost. Muslims have been famous for attributing this story to Bao. This is the main historical anecdote in the book:
Scriptores Physiognomonici. R. Foerster I, Leipzig, I 398, P. VIII-X
(21) – Aflimon: He is a Greek philosopher. His Latin translation was published in the book: “R, Foerster”
on pages 29-994. It was also published in Aleppo in 1929. His translation is mentioned in Al-Akhbar, p. 60.
(22) – In Al-Akhbar, he added: “So they took the image to Ophilimon, and the Greeks skillfully engraved the image of man in such a way that they depicted all the features of the human face, and that is why the nation The Greeks worshiped painted figures, and worshiped in front of them, so they became skilled in painting portraits, other tribes and nations who painted human portraits following the Greeks, never based on the Greeks in this art “They did not arrive”, this phrase has been slightly changed in Mukhtasar al-Dawl.
(23) – The text of this treaty is mentioned in Al-Ayoun, vol. 1- p.
(24) – The four medical techniques: educational science, and natural, and divine, and logical.
(25) – These descriptions correspond to what Hippocrates mentioned in his will, but it is not mentioned in his treaty, and this will is mentioned in Al-
. City: “Ain Zarba” 2, Shami, Greek, botanist, lived after Hippocrates, and translated many of his books, he was a professor and leader among the ancient pharmacists, and in knowing Single medicines have been excellent and reference, all his research is on the goods and types of medicinal plants, and he has not spoken about their degrees.
He has authored a book on botany in five articles4, and until then no such research had been done on the knowledge of medicinal plants
. I did not find any more complete among them than the book of Diascoridos. Later, his method in researching and recognizing medicinal plants became an example for others. It is the god of plants, because the word: “Diasqor” is a bystander meaning: guardian of plants, and “devil” means: God is a god, and by joining these two words, it becomes: “Shajar Allah – guardian of plants” 6 That is, the person to whom God has spoken about trees and plants has also written two scholarly articles on toxins. 7.
(1) – Diazkouridos: is one of the Greek masters: and Zyaskuridos is also written with both dotted and non-dots, and he: “Sahib al-Nafs al-Zakiya” and “tourist” and “botanist” – Al-Hakim Al-Hashaishi – and “Al-Hakim Al-Ain Zarbi” are also called.
He lived in the first or second period of Christian history, but his time is not known for sure. 35, and Mukhtasar al-Dawl, p.
(2) – Ain Zarbi: “Baftehza and Sakun Ra’i and Ba’a and A are to blame in the end, it is a border city in the areas of Al-Masisa in Qalikia” (Yaqut dictionary), and “Ain Zarbi”, the name of this city in Greek: “Inazerpa” This city was and is now located in Turkey – and it is called Anavrza in Turkish.
(3) – The meaning of the ranks of medicinal plants: the type of “and the amount of force” that is present in plants is: cold, heat, humidity, constipation -: cold, heat, wet and dry.
(4) – The book of five articles: The purpose of his book is known as: “Al-Hashaish and the plants”. Refer to the next margin.
(5) – The name of this book is: “Al-Hashaish wa Al-Nabat” or “The Beast of Medicine” or “The Book of Single Medicine”, Haji Khalifa says in discovering suspicion: He realized the benefits of seeds, seeds, bark and kernels of plants, and wrote a book on the subject and introduced it to his students.
This book has long been the only comprehensive and complete source and reference on this subject, and has been considered by many scholars.
Ibn Jaljal (the author of this book) has a book called: “Interpretation of the singular names of medicine from the book of Disqorides”, and at the beginning of that book he says: He translated it from Greek into Arabic, and since he could not find the Arabic equivalent of many of the plants with the Greek name in Arabic, he wished in the Arabic translation that someone would come later who could give the Arabic equivalent of all the names. Find and complete the Arabic translation. And after him came Hanin ibn Ishaq, the translator, and he completed the work of incomplete Arabic translation, and allowed its narration.
He has benefited a lot from the book of Disqorides, and it has been studied, researched, explained, interpreted, suspended, understood and corrected, including:
1- Ibn Jaljal in his book: “Interpretation of the names of medicine “Single from the book Disqorides.”
2- Sheikh Al-Ra’is Abu Ali Ibn Sina, who died in 428 AH. Which has quoted many of the contents of the book of Discordides in the book of Al-Adwiya Al-Mufradah from the book of Law.
3- Ali Ibn Rezwan, an Egyptian physician who died in the year 453 AH. In his writings on the subject of “single medicine”.
4- Ibn Wafid al-Andalus (Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Karim) who died in the year 467 AH in his book called:
5- Al-Sharif Al-Idrisi – who died in the year 560 AH in the book “Al-Jame ‘for the attributes of plant stems” and what had been written about plants by Discordides, he added in this book.
6- Abu Ja’far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Ghafaqi, who died in the year 560 AH, in his book: “Jame ‘al-Mufradat”, has mentioned all the contents of Discordides and Galen on the subject of medicinal plants. Ibn al-Anbari, who died in 684 AH, has abbreviated this book under the title of “Comprehensive selection of contents”.
7- The tourist Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, who died in the year 629 AH, has a book entitled:
8- Abu Al-Abbas Ibn Rumiyyah, who died in the year 637 AH:
9- Zia-ud-Din bin Al-Bitar, who died in the year 646 AH. He has a book called: “Al-Jami ‘in Al-Adwiya Al-Mufradah” and as he says in the introduction of this book: he has included all five articles of the book of Discordides in the supplement of the book:
10- Dawood Al-Antaki, who died in the year 1008 AH. In collecting the materials of his book called:
“Tazkerat al-Uli al-Albab” by Disqorides is considered to be his most important source (see Kashf al-Dhanun, vol. Case:
A copy of the book Al-Hashish Disqorides, number 1029, section of medicine is available in the library:
“Dar al-Kitab al-Masriyya”, this copy is taken from a manuscript belonging to the Hagia Sophia Library in Constantinople. It is written: “The book Disqorides al-Ain Zarbi in the monster of the cure of medicine, quoted by Istifan ibn Basil
and the correction of Hanin ibn Ishaq”, this book is in five articles and the pictures of the plants are painted in it. , And its page number is 372 pages.
(6) – Ibn Abi Asiba’ah (vol. 1- p. 235) quotes from Hanin Ibn Ishaq: The people of Disqorides called him: “From Dash Niadish” (?), And this phrase in his language means: (Out of us) because he was isolated and lived in the mountains and meadows in all seasons, not in government, not in councils, not in other matters with his people. He did not, and he had avoided them, and for this reason his people called him by that name. But it is well known that the name: “Discorides” is derived from the Greek word which is the name of two gods together from the Greek goddess or means: two children of the great god.
(7) – In Al-Oyun: “The book of Discordians consists of five articles, and in some versions it has two articles, sixth and seventh, in addition to animal poisons, and is attributed to Badiscourides”. And in the list, p. 407: “His book Al-Hashaish is five articles, two other articles have been added on insects and toxins. And the phrase of Al-Akhbar is as follows: “And in the poisons of two books, there are two articles, etc.” 2
8- Plato the Wise 1
He was a native of Athens. He was a Roman, a Greek philosopher, a physician, and a scientist on the board of the heavens, and knew the properties and natures of numbers. , And has articles and books in philosophy.
Plato did some research on the “composition of proportions,” and no philosopher before him had explored the subject, and thus he discovered the debugging industry, but the theory of “composition” is: They are not empty in the universe.
And when Plato perfected his research in the science of the “printing of numbers,” and the science of the five compositional relations, the doors of worldly knowledge were opened to him, and he knew the proportion of the components of composite beings with different colors – transverse and intrinsic – known from this research. Another came that it is: “the science of imagining images”.
First, he assumed a movement that was comprehensive of different movements, then he decomposed the composition of its components in numerical proportion, and this action led Vira to the science of “image of images”, and on this principle he reached the industry of debugging and other citrus, and He has written a book on this subject.
Plato has strange ideas in philosophy. Dara was killed by Alexander 5. He lived, and his time was after the reign of Hippocrates
during the reign of Alexander Phillips’s father, in his time Rome and Greece were occupied by the Persian government
(1) – Plato: Translation of his condition in the book of index 245-246, Tarikh Ya’qubi p. 96, Al-Tabqat p. 23, Al-Akhbar, p. ، مسالك الابصار- ح- 5 Volume 2 pp. 287-288, Al-Mulla wa Al-Nahl 2: 190, Encyclopedia of Islam’s Article “Plato”
Plato died in 447 BC, and died in 347 BC.
(2) – We have already talked about the book of politics, for Plato’s writings in: – Al-Ayyun – vol. 1 – p
. In this book, Plato discusses: social systems, the rule of law, justice, the form of government, and national systems. Translated and published in Al-Muqtaf in 1929. Published in Egypt.
(4) – In Al-Oyun: “Daraito” is written, here the meaning is: “Darai II” which means him:
“Nato” is said to be in Greek meaning “illegitimate child”, it has a son – the famous Artaxerxes. It was his contemporary year, because Plato was born in 428 BC. And in Mukhtasar al-Dawl – p. 87: “Dariush Notosh” means: “son of the nation”, and Massoudi in the book “Promoter of Gold” wrote this word with the correction: “Darabnous” – c – 1- p. 196, and again in the same book p. 244: “Daranus” has brought.
(5) – The Persian emperor, who was contemporary with Alexander and fought with him, had a third ruler who ruled in Persia from 335 to 330 BC, he was not the son of a second ruler – as Ibn Jaljal said here . 2
9- Aristotle of Majesty 1
He was one of the people of the city (Majzuniyeh), 2 Romans, he was an exaggerator, he was a philosopher, scholar, scholar, orator and physician of the Roman land. He has written poems and books such as “Kitab al-Sama ‘al-Tabi’i” 3. 4- The existence of all-, and the books of “Kun Al-Khas” 5- The special existence- such as
: It has discussed and researched the topics of words and types of propositions, and the quality of the combination of propositions, consequent and implicit, and the order of preliminaries, and forms of analogy in argument, and anyone who wants to learn the art of argument and the science of logic can not read this book.
Aristotle has written books in various sciences, including: “Kitab al-Khattab”, “Kitab al-Sho’ara”, “Kitab al-Rad Bar Sufistai”, and “Kitab al-Ajram al-Alawi” which he called: “Kitab al-Alam al-Kabir”, and known as: “Kitab al-Sama ‘wa al-Alam”, and “Kitab al-Tawhid” called:
“Kitab al-Rabubiyyah” 7, and some treatises on: “Wills” 8 and “Civil politics” 9,
Aristotle was the teacher of Alexander 10 son of Philips, letter Baskander’s wise writings have been written, including: When Alexander conquered the country of Persia, he wrote letter 11 in this regard to Bar-Stuttalis:
I see very wise and vigilant men in the land of Persia who have
strife “I’m relieved of their thoughts. What is your opinion on this?”
Aristotle wrote in Alexander’s reply, “If you shed the blood of the wise men of Persia, it is not difficult to do so, and you are capable of it, but Zanhar, from something you can never do and kill (the country of Persia). Know that the land of Persia (which raises and nurtures such men) can not be cultivated, or its climate can not be changed, so the solution is to deal with those people ( Parsians) Do good deeds, so that you may win their hearts and be victorious in their friendship. 14
Alexander Andrews accepted his master Aristotle, and acted on his orders, and treated the people of Persia well, and befriended them, so that the Iranians (Persians) became the most obedient nations under the yoke of rule. Alexander were located.
Among the letters of Aristotle Baskander: “The treatise” consists of eight articles on the management of property and the principles of secularism and the laws of politics and the practice of social affairs called: “The book of politics in the management of politics” 15 This book is known as: None of the philosophers before Aristotle wrote such a book. In this treatise, eight words of society are mentioned from the acronyms of “theological societies” and include all the interests and consistency of human society.
And those eight words are 16.
The world is like a garden whose wall is the government
and the ruler whose leader (guardian) is the
law . He is the king,
and the king is like a shepherd, whose staff is the army,
and the army is the helper and assistant, whose steadfastness and strength are with wealth,
and property of the sustenance, the collector of which is the farmer.
And Barzegar is a slave who has been enslaved by justice,
and justice is the bond of society, which is the consistency and good of the world.
These eight words of society contain political and philosophical meanings, and each of its words (each word) is attached to the previous word, and the next sentence is its commentator and interpreter, as the last word means: “And that consistency and goodness” It is the world “has joined the first word, that is,” the world is like a garden “, that is, the first word:” the world “is the same word as the end, which is also: the world. 17
When he died, he commanded that when he was buried, they should build an octagonal dome (eight-sided) on top of his grave, and write one of these eight words on each side.
There is disagreement about the death of Aristotle, some say: he died and died as all people die, and he is famous and famous, others have said: Aristotle should fall in a pillar of light.
In Greek chronicles it is stated that: “God revealed to Aristotle that: O Aristotle, if I call you an angel, it is closer to your institution, until I call you a human being”
and also from his writings is a book in proof of 18… (soul) Human speech), known as the book “Al-Tafah”. 19 times the speech in the wisdom and knowledge of Aristotle lengthens the speech.
(1) – Aristotle: And Aristotle, also written: (324-384 BC), for his translation to: Jacoby 327-107, Index pp. 246-252, Al-Tabqat p. 24, News p. 27, Al-Ayoun – C- 1- p. 54, Mukhtasar Al-Dawl, pp. 94-91, Selected Picture- Sheet 36- Al-Nuzha Sheet- 100-116, Al-Masalak- C- 5- Volume 2- 2- Sheet 288 Islamic encyclopedia Article “Aristotle”.
(2) – “Al-Majzuni”, “Majzuni” and “Macedonian” and “Macedonian” are also written.
(3) – “Kitab al-Sama ‘al-Tabi’i”: For identification of the characteristics of this book, and the
interpreters, and the commentators, it and other works of Aristotle, refer to: Al-Fihrast, p. 350, Al-Akhbar, p. 38.
The book: “Al-Sama ‘al-Tabi’i” which is known as “Sama’ al-Kiyan” consists of eight articles. An extensive article on the reason for naming this book by this name is given in the book: “Greek Heritage in the Islamic Presence”, p. Aristotle ”has translated and translated.
(4) – Aristotle has several writings and books on each of the two subjects: (general con) and (special con), so the singularity of the word (general con) has no cause.
(5) – Ibn Sa’id in his classes, p. 25, speaks in detail about the books of general and special universe: But the things whose knowledge is general and general are the subject of some of them are transformations and transformations, and some are movements, but transformations and transformations such as: : “The sky and the world”.
As for the things whose knowledge is special, the subject of some of them is simple, and the subject of some others is citrus, but the books whose subject is simple, such as: (Kitab al-Athar al-Alawiya), but the books whose subject is Are citrus, some of them are in the description of the generality of the compound objects, and some are about the components of the compound objects, but the general books such as: “The book of animals and plants”. As for the books of the components of compounds such as: (the book of the soul), (the book of the senses and the tangible), (the book of health and health) – the book of health and disease-, (the book of the night and the seal) – the book of youth and old age.
(6) – The Book of the Eyes, and Al-Akhbar, Al-Fihrast, have spoken in detail about the eight logical books of Aristotle.
(7) – This book is known as “Theology, or the saying on the Lordship”. Some of the works of Plato (205-270) are
(8) – Aristotle’s book is a book in (wills) consisting of four articles, has other wills that Alexander the Great said to his student, the names of some of them while translating Aristotle’s life It is mentioned in the book of Eyes and News.
(9) – Page 26 talks about the book of politics.
(10) – Alexander the Great, who reigned from 326 to 323 BC, built the city of Alexandria and on this occasion it was called the city of Alexandria and was buried in the same city. Masoudi says: In 322 AH, the tomb of Alexander the Great existed in Alexandria. (Encyclopedia of Islam: Al-Iskandar, Al-Akhbar – p. 26, Selected Al-Sawan, pp. 47, Ibn Al-Umayd, pp. 78-83, Al-Muqrizi – 1: 150-155)
(11) الرياسة و يعرف بسر الاسرار »has been translated into Arabic, and in the introduction of the mentioned translation, he has quoted this treatise (Aristotle’s treatise) in full in Alexander’s answer about the administration of Persian affairs. This issue is used in the translation of Ibn al-Batriq which is mentioned in the same book.
Also, in the history of Ibn al-Umayd, page 80, while translating Alexander, he has quoted this treatise in its entirety. Kennedy has also quoted this treatise in his book (Virtues of Egypt), p. 191.
(12) – In the main text (Book of Politics) the phrase is: “The land of Persia and the rule of the elders of that country.”
(13) – In the text (Book of Politics): “O teacher” – O teacher.
(14) – In the history of Ibn al-Umayd: “By friendship and obedience, then Alexander did so”, in the text of Ibn al-Umayd, the treatise ends with the same phrase, as Ibn Jaljal has quoted the same amount of treatise here, but in himself Al-Siyasah has the rest of this treatise and it is this: “خواه You will gain their friendship, because if you gain the friendship and obedience of that people by doing good, their obedience and friendship with you will be more stable, than you want to oppress them.” And tyranny obeys self-creation, and know that you will not dominate the bodies of the people except in truth and goodness, and know that if the subject can say something, he can certainly put his words into action and do what he has said, then “You should try not to say anything to your subjects, so that you will be safe from his actions.”
(15) – A very good copy of this book is available in the library (Suhaj) with 167 sections of history. I have referred to
this version, pp. 4-5
. He drew octagons and wrote one of those words on each side (side).
These words are also mentioned in Ibn Khaldun’s introduction and he has added the equivalent of these meanings and words from the words of the priests and Anushirvan.
Badr al-Din Ibn Jama’at, who died in the year 733 AH, has also stated these words in his book: “Tahrir – Al-Ahkam fi Tadbir Ahl al-Islam”, page 19, and Ibn Al-Umayd in his history, page 83.
(17) – This phrase is evident in the introduction to the translation of Aristotle’s Politics – which has already been mentioned – with a little introduction and delay (p. 3 manuscript of Suhaj)
. He passed by the light (and that God sent him with the revelation in this regard: If I call you an angel…)
( 18) It means
(19) – This book has been attributed in many sources of Barstu, and in some sources it has been considered as Socrates, as in the manuscript collection No. 1290 of Ethics in the Timurid Library, the ninth book of this collection is entitled: “Summary of the book The subject of this book is the conversation that took place between Aristotle (Socrates) and his disciples shortly before his death, and the subject of the conversation is the virtue and superiority of wisdom. From this book, there are translations into Arabic, Latin, and Persian. , Professor Marglioth, the Persian translation of this book in the Journal of the Asian Society of the Kingdom of Britain in 1892. Published on pp. 187-252, this is a Persian translation of Afzal al-Din Kashani (who was the aunt of Allama Nasir al-Din Tusi) who died around 610 AH, and its title is as follows: ».
Sheikh Amin Tahir Khairullah has published an old Arabic translation of this book in Al-Muqtataf magazine in December 1919, June, February, and March 1920.
And Dr. Mahmoud Al-Khudiri in an article about Afzal al-Din Kashani in the magazine (Resalat al-Islam) No. 4 from the first year says: This book (Persian translation of Afzal al-Din) is not written by Aristotle but by the philosophers of mysticism »» Gnose “It was written under the influence of the new Platonic school
Professor (De Boer) says in the book “History of Philosophy in Islam” – translated by Dr. Abi Rida, page 29: “He was strengthening his psyche, which was coming out of his body, to the smell of that apple, and at the end of the conversation, his hand became weak and the apple fell to the ground.” Also in the book: “Brotherhood of Al-Safa – vol. 4- p. 100, refer. And Professor: شتنشنیدر has discussed in this subject:
M. Siein Schneider, Die Arab Ubersetzungen Ans Dem Griechischen Beihefte Zum Zentralblatt Fur Bibliothekwesen, XII (I 398) P. 28.
10- Socrates 1
He was a divine philosopher, pious, pious, Roman, Greek, and one of the “Shamat” people. He never wrote a book. It was a kilim that covered the body with it, and he did not provide any clothes for himself other than that.
One day the king of his country came to him, Socrates looked at him in awe, and gave him some advice, King Bao said: Why are you so ugly? Socrates said: This is beyond my control, and what has been entrusted to me to increase and beautify, I have perfected it (his purpose is to cultivate the morality of his soul), King Bao said: If with us “I will give you a gift,” said Socrates.
What will you give me, O king, and what will be your gift? The king said: Silk garments, gold and jewels, Socrates said: O king, do I see that you deceive me with the saliva of worms, and the stones of the earth, and the children of oysters? And what is in that other world is superior to them. King Bao said: O Socrates, you are my slave, Socrates Bao said:
And you are my slave, King Bao said: How can I be your slave?
Socrates said: “Because I am a man who takes and disobeys my disgusting and annoying lusts and desires, and you are the one whose lust overcomes you and commands you, so you are a slave.” You are me, King Bao said:
What made you choose to live in this pottery jar? Socrates Bao said:
I have said goodbye to all that is corrupt, and I have overthrown myself, King Bao said:
What will you do if this jar is broken? Socrates Bau said: If the jar is broken, its place will not be broken. So King Socrates said goodbye because he had failed to talk to him. 4
After that, the king secretly spoke about Socrates with his properties. The religion of that group was the worship of the stars. They came, Socrates surrendered himself to them and said: Death is good, not evil, because man reaches the stage of perfection after death, so the emperors took the king of Socrates and took him to the king, and seventy nobles and elders testified that He denounced their gods, so the king ordered Socrates to be killed, his wife cried, Socrates said: Why are you crying? The woman said: I weep for the fact that I see that you are being killed unjustly. So Socrates was killed, and when they wanted to kill him, one of his disciples said to Bao: What should we do with your lifeless body after death?
Socrates said: He who wants to cleanse my place will take my body. Another of his disciples said: O master, write your knowledge for us in the books. Socrates said: I will never put knowledge in the skins of sheep.
Socrates said to his disciples: O my children? Know yourself, who are you sheltering in?
And if you do not give such thought to yourself, then marry and fear the world.
And if you do not know how to fear the world, and how to avoid it? Think of the world as a thorn in the side, then look sharply at where you stand.
And refrain from lust, because those who are attached to the lusts of the world have a veil between their wisdom and God. And a man said to him: O teacher of good guidance?
What is the nature of God?
Socrates said: It is ignorant to talk about someone who can not reach him.
Another said: O teacher? Why was this universe created?
Socrates said: Because God is merciful (Javad).
And Socrates sat and talked a lot with a shoemaker named Shimon.
And Socrates said: I do not think that the human soul was aware of its own destiny?
One of his disciples asked him: O philosopher, why does not the soul become aware of its future and destiny?
Socrates said: Because if the soul becomes aware of its own destiny, it will fly anyway, and say goodbye to the body, and the human body will not benefit from it.
And Socrates was old and the leader of Plato, and Plato was old and the teacher of Aristotle, and because Aristotle’s name is famous and his works are diagrams, we translated his biography before mentioning Socrates. 2
(1) – Socrates: and also: “Socrates” is written, to translate Socrates to! History of Ya’qubi- 95- Al-Tabqat p. – 5- Volume- 2- Pages 282- 287, International and Solution 2: 185.
(2) – Socrates considered the position of wisdom so high and honorable that he refused to write it on sheets of paper and pieces of leather, and said that wisdom is pure and holy, the place of the people is alive. And it should not be written on dead and dirty skins (skins that were written on them), Socrates learned this temperament from his master Timanus (according to Jacob Timus), what one day Socrates said to Timothy himself when he was a child. Why do not you let me write what you teach me wisdom? Master Bao said: I never want you to trust the skins of dead animals and say goodbye to the living soul, see if someone came across you on the way, and asked you something of knowledge, is it appropriate for you to say in his answer? Should I go home and look in my books? So it is up to you to get rid of knowledge, Socrates did so from then on. (العيون- ج- 1 ص 43)
And Ya’qubi in -c- 1- 1- p. 134 and Shahrzuri in Al-Nuzha on page 60 have quoted this story from Socrates.
(3) – In Al-Akhbar – c – 1- p. And in Al-Oyun, vol. Broken, he chose housing to free himself from the cold, and when the sun was blowing, he would come out of the dungeon and sit on it to warm himself in the sun, hence the name “Socrates of Love”) and In (النزهة) the same phrase is mentioned sheet (61).
(4) – This conversation that took place between the king and Socrates is also mentioned in Al-Akhbar, but in Al-Ayyun and Al-Nuzha, it tells the story of “Dan” or “Al-Zir al-Maksour”, then another conversation that took place between Socrates and the king is mentioned. This recent conversation is known to have taken place between the “Colby Diocese” and one of the kings, and this Diocese is known for sitting on or under a broken den (this story is translated in the translation of the Colby Diogenes’s biography on page 121). And the author adds here that the king who talked to Diogenes was named Alexander. And this is except for the famous Alexander, a student of Aristotle.
(5) – In those ancient times, the Greeks had the Saaba religion, worshiped and glorified the stars, the Greeks worshiped many gods besides the stars, and considered their gods to be human figures and some as the source of habits. And they have considered vicious and collective attributes as the source of utopia (Mukhtasar al-Dawl, p. 95)
11- Democrats 1
Roman philosopher If one (Greek), he did not engage in philosophy and research except in the wisdom of philosophy, the theory: “integral part” 2 is from him, he has written books on this theory. And he lived
in the time of Socrates . He has said, and in Al-Tabqat, p. 27, Al-Akhbar, p. 182, Al-Ya’qubi, p.
In the book “History of Greek Philosophy” written by Yusuf Karam, pp. 53-49, the life history of Democritus is mentioned in it, in which he says: Is: I made travels that no one of the people of my time had done, I saw cities and countries and I reached lands that no one had gone and seen or reached until that day. “I heard big words that no one had heard, no one in geometry, not even the Egyptian engineers – was superior to me.”
Democrats lived around 459 BC. (2) – This phrase in Al –
Tabqat, Al-Akhbar, and Al-Mukhtasar Al-Dawl is as follows:
– In the margin of the book of chapter – 2: 183, and 3: 13 and 24).
(3) – In Al-Akhbar and in some other sources, he says: Dhimocrates lived in the time of Hippocrates and this statement is true, (Selected verses 76 and 78, and Al-Nuzha: 113), “Zymocrates and Hippocrates both lived at the same time and in the reign of the emperor Bahman, the son of Esfandiar” (Al-Mulla wa Al-Nahl – 3:24).
The third group of famous Greek physicians and philosophers who lived during the reign of the Greeks after the Persian domination,
so far there has been talk of sages and philosophers who lived in ancient times (before and after the storm) And have been contemporary with the Syrian and Khosrowan governments of Persia.
We are now talking about the third group of Greek philosophers who were contemporaries of the conquering Greek government, the Greek government was founded by Alexander, and ruled the world for forty-two years, and during the reign of Cleopatra, the learned scientist. – الاويطره- انقرده يافت.
And in the time of Alexander’s reign, there were a group of philosophers and sages, (and their number is many), among them: There was no great sage among this group, and in infamy they never reached the footsteps of the previous philosophers, and we have mentioned them here, as long as they lived, and the life of this group of philosophers was not hidden from anyone.
Let us return to our words:
And among the philosophers and philosophers who during the two hundred and forty-two years of the Greek government were famous in the sciences: philosophy, divine wisdom, the celestial body, astronomy, and other higher sciences:
(1) – Ptolemy I reigned in 306 BC, and the reign of Cleobatra ended in 30 BC, so the reign of the Greeks is two hundred and seventy-five or two hundred.
And it has been seventy-six years. Especially among Islamic historians there is disagreement about the period of rule of the Greek state, most of them say: the Greeks have reigned for two hundred and eighty-two years since the conquest of Daraa, and if we subtract seven years from this period, the rest of the period Alexander’s reign is two hundred and seventy-five years after the conquest of Dara, which is the time of the reign of “Batalmeh”.
(2) – “Ilavitra” This name is written here, and this is the famous queen! Cleobatra is the last king of Batalma. Who have ruled in Egypt since 30 BC.
The name of Cleobatra has been written in various sources in Islamic history: “Qulubtra”, “Qalawatra”, “Qalaubtra”, “Kalabatra”. Islamic historians say: He has authored and written (Al-Tanbiyyah 99-199, Al-Tabqat-30, Al-Mukhtasar Al-Dawl-107, and Al-Akhbar 96 and 259) and in the history of Ibn Al-Umayd, page 87, he has written about him as follows: : (Crying on the rock). This name, which Ibn al-‘Umayd referred to and translated as Cleobatra, although it is not famous, but in terms of translating its words into Greek, it can be said to be correct, because
: : (Slate) is.
(3) – 1 Andromache: The philosopher and physician lived in the time of Alexander, and was the chief physician in Jordan. Famous potion: He arranged the potion that was named after the king – Al-Matrouzius – by this name, Andromache reduced some of the contents of its medicines and added some medicines to it, and as a result, he invented the potion called: Kurds, the potion of opium was very useful in eliminating snake venom (snakes), and King Mesroditus VI, one of the kings of the country “Nabtus” (located on the shores of the Black Sea or according to the Arabs of the Nabtus Sea), from 132 to 163 He reigned after the birth of Christ, he did a lot of research on poisons and their effect on people’s bodies, and made an opium composed of 54 substances called opium:
(The relatives of Al-Mathruditusi) became famous, this opium has been useful for the treatment of venomous venoms and snake bites, 180- Minhaj Al-Dekan – 72) 2
(4) – 1 Magnus: “Magnus” and “Magnus” are also written. He was a physician, one of the people of Homs, one of the students and fellow citizens of Hippocrates, and he had a name and address in his time. He lived before
Galen . He lived for ninety years. Al-Akhbar, 322, Al-Ayoun – 1:33 and Abu Al-Fida 1: 90). 2
(5) – 1 Ziogles: He is a Greek physician, one of the disciples of Bermanides, he is one of the physicians who worked in medicine only by “analogy” and not by “experience” (Selected Image: 114) 2
(6) – 1 Bulls: Among the physicians, several doctors have been named Bulls, one of them is: “Bols al-Ajaniti, or Bulls al-Qawabili”, but he lived in a later time of this era that the author says It is – perhaps the physician of Boles’s name that Ibn Jaljal mentions here is the same one whom Qufti says in his translation of the Qur’an: “He is weak in medicine.” قفطى- ص- 95. 21
12- Ptolemy 1
After Alexander II, he ascended the throne. He was a scientist and a scholar. To know these historical matters, until he found what he wanted in the city (Jerusalem) 3 with the children of Israel, so he sent “Yerunam al-Tarjman” 4 to them, “Yerunam” there the book “Torah” from the Hebrew language Translated into Greek 5, Ptolemy read that translation, and found the story of Nimrooz and found his name in the Torah 6.
Ptolemy sent a group of philosophers to the lands under his command to give him the diameter of the earth, and the area of certain parts, etc. In the science of astronomy, and researched and discussed the astronomical board, and his famous book:
He wrote “Majasti” 7 in the science of the celestial body and the state of the stars, and also wrote the famous book: “Geography” 8 in the description of the conditions of the climates of the earth, and in the subject of the movements of the stars he wrote the famous book “Law” 9 in which he wrote The book has determined and calculated the geographical latitude of the climates and lands on the basis of the latitude of the climate in which he lived, ie latitude: Alexandria, and Alexandria was his capital.
Ptolemy 10 tried so hard to study medicine and philosophy that he became the only one of his time, and surpassed his predecessors in these sciences. His teacher in these sciences was Eratos, an astronomer. .
Ptolemy ruled for thirty-eight years. These were his words about Ptolemy.
(1) – Ptolemy II nicknamed: Philadelphia means: (his brother’s friend)
He conquered the world in 309 BCE in Swan, and ruled from 285 to 246 BCE. His name appears in Arabic sources: “Ptolemy, Ptolemy, Ptolemy, Ptolemy”, as well as in sources and books. In the Islamic translation, he has been confused with another of Batalmeh
. : 154).
(2) – The Greek king who succeeded Alexander was Ptolemy son of Lagos, and after him Ptolemy Philadelphus became king, and this is Ptolemy II, who speaks of him here.
(3) – Qufti here after the word: “Jerusalem” has added the following sentence: “In the Second Greek Government”
(4) – See footnote (5) p. 55.
(5) – Ibn Jaljal says here: “King Yerunam sent the translator to the children of Israel, and he translated the Torah for the king from a Hebrew ون.” But this is not true, because Jerome the translator died in 430 AD, and Ptolemy reigned from 285 to 246 BC.
The fact of the matter is: the translation of the Bible was done in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus and the Torah: (Old Testament) was translated from Hebrew into Hebrew, and the same translation is still used in Christian synagogues, and is known as Translation: “Seven” is a translation of seventy people. This translation was prepared according to the petition of “Aristias” written by the order of King Ptolemy. Seventy Jewish religious leaders gathered in a secluded island on the island of Pharos near the city of Alexandria and translated (the five vows of Moses) – the five vows of the Torah of Moses – only from Hebrew into Hebrew. But the complete translation of the Old Testament is something that has not been done at once, but different parts have been translated by different and numerous people in different contexts. The story of the translation of the Torah in the books: 72- 73), (Al-Akhbar, p. 99), (Abu Al-Fida ‘: 1: 34-35), (Al-Mull wa Al-Nahl, 1: 198)
Hyrosius is a Romanian historian from the history of Ibn al-Umayd.
Also, Ibn Khaldun has narrated this story from ( Yusifus ) Ibn Kryun in his volume 1- 1- p. Translated into Arabic, Mas’udi says about this Arabic translation: “Most people consider this translation to be the most correct and correct translations of the Torah” – Al-Tanbiyyah – p. 98
. The translator seems to have confused the subject of the translation of the Old Testament by Bionani and the translation of the Bible from Arabic into Latin. )
(6) – Qifti in: “Al-Akhbar” has added the phrase here: “And this translation was translated by Hanin Ibn Ishaq from Greek into Arabic”
(7) – This statement is wrong, because the author is the middle author of King Ptolemy and Ptolemy Did Flavius (Al-Quluzi), the owner of the “Magistrate Book”, confuse? Because Ptolemy Qalozi lived in the city of Alexandria in the second century AD and he himself has precisely determined the time and era of his life in his book (Majasti), what he says in the book of Majasti: “He is one hundred Sixty-one years after the reign of Aghstas, the deceased Caesar lived in the year 14 AD. 99), and also Ibn Khaldun in the introduction of his history, p. 488, according to this point, has identified two people of Ptolemy and two different eras who lived.
Majasti is a book on astronomy and the movements of the planets and the planets. The Arabic translation of this book is in thirteen articles. And after that it became famous in scientific circles, and scientists paid attention to it, referred to it in the problems of astronomy, and explained, interpreted, wrote and summarized it (in the list of pp. 268-267, discovered 2: 1594-1596, Al-Tanbiyyah, see 112. And the history of Ya’qubi speaks in detail about its chapters and articles.The
correct name of this book in Greek is “Majal Syntaxis”, meaning: the great organization, and this word It has been translated into Arabic as (Al-Majasti): Undoubtedly this translation is from someone
He has mastered and mastered the Greek language, because he left the word “majsti” which means “great” and removed the first part of the word which is system or set (organization) due to his fame! There are similarities in the Arabic language, for example, in the case of the book The Famous Syntax of Siboyeh, which gradually and due to its fame, removed the word of the book and the word “Siboyeh” remained and became common (*)? (It is not true that Fawad Seyyed Hadsa translated the word Majasti because the word “Majsti” was neither the name of this book nor the Arabic translation of its name, but this book in the school of Alexandria and in the eyes of mathematical and astronomical scholars is absolutely a great book and In short, it was known as “Bozorg-Majsti” and the same fame existed in Arabic and among the Islamic constellations
. That is, on the contrary, the word (Siboyeh) was deleted and the word (book) remained)
And in the Middle Ages, Europeans imitated the Arabic language and called it “Al-Majesti” “Alma? Geste”.
(8) – Geography: The word ist Greek: meaning: (description of the earth), and Ptolemy is the first person to write this book on this subject, this book is known as: “Geography of Ptolemy”, and in eight It is an article, and he has written it after the end of writing the book of Majasti. Each country has been carefully recorded as far as scientists have reached at that time, in this book he has written the number of cities, mountains, mines, the number of inhabitants of cities (Al-Tamdan Al-Islami – 3: 96, Kashf, 1 : 590), this book was translated into Arabic during the time of the Abbasid Caliph Mamun, and there are several photocopies taken from the Istanbul manuscripts in the Egyptian library.
(9) – This book is written in astronomy (astronomy), and is the most complete book written in this field, and it contains astronomical calculations, modifications, calculations of stars – (in the history of Jacob, a detailed description of this book is mentioned , Pp. 115-113).
(10) – From here to the end of the translation, the words of Ptolemy Shah have been rejected.
(11) – Al-Akhbar: “Aristotle the Astronomer” and perhaps “
Arratarchus , Ibn Al-Nadim mentions him in his book Al-Fihrast and says about him: “He is one of the Greek scholars of the Alexandrian school and one of his works is (The Book of the Sun and the Moon)”. A copy of this book in the collection number MS .OR, 54 entitled [The book of Aristarchus in the crime of the sun and the moon and their dimensions]
Or Murad: Eratos is a Greek scientist who was one of the scholars of the Alexandrian school and was the author of a famous system in astronomy, astronomical conditions and atmospheric events, which he organized around 270 BC. One of these two was Master Ptolemy of Philadelphia.